All normal children often participate in many developmental characteristics and manifestations, and the first year of the child is distinguished by the speed of his physical and sensory development, and his first year includes many developments that start with random movements to develop for crawling and then walking, and many others such as the child’s responses and interactions to his surroundings by speaking, acquiring the language, and building Primitive social relations, care should be taken to raise the child and how to deal with and build constructively with him; to instill the basis of a healthy personality in the light of all internal and external influences specific to the child’s environment, and the proper development and stability of the child depends on Z behavior of parents and their interaction mechanisms, if the parents in response to a healthy baby healthy and stable, reversible arises if parents are treated negatively and a troubled child is only established.
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Developmental characteristics of a child at the age of one year
The aspects of the child’s development and development differ from one stage to another, as these aspects are divided into various fields, each of which has a special growth, and these aspects or areas can be classified into five sections for the sake of mentioning but not limited to: the aspects of mental, physical, emotional and linguistic development And social, and the purpose of this classification is to facilitate the process of dealing with children according to their stages through knowledge of their characteristics, and therefore their physical or psychological needs and others.
Changes in this appearance are evident in the increase in the movements of the child, which is his ability to control his muscles more clearly, as his ability to visual kinetic synergy is better than the previous, which gives him more control over his movements, and this appears by sitting; so he is stationary in his sitting and his ability to love his stomach or on His limbs, while standing, the child can rely on the surrounding furniture or walls, and he can stand for a short time without assistance, and he may be able to walk for a few steps, so the child does not hesitate to explore everything around him, so he can take things from the ground, examine them, and shake them And throw it, just as he has the skill to examine By turning it in his mouth using his fingers, he may succeed in finding what is eaten from it and continuing to try to bite it or get rid of it if the taste and nature are not palatable,  and one of the most important educational guidelines related to the child’s physical development at this stage adopts the necessary precautions for the safety of the child by removing All that may be harmful to him from furniture or antiques, etc. What is required at this stage is to develop the free activity of the child, and not to curb the activity of his movement, as this movement is disturbing to the parents in most cases, it satisfies his need to explore and discover what is around it, and it is harmful to force him to walk or Forced love, but must be left Z rest, he will walk and crawl whenever he was ready for this, while encouraging parents and their support, and desirable to encourage the child in any failed attempt to eat his food and drink, or any sensory skill of the child is trying to do.
Emotional behavior is an acquired behavior, which the child learns from others by imitating them, including how to express his emotions to those around him, and this behavior develops in the child from birth until the age of one year, from being random general reactions to differentiated emotional behaviors related to the external influences and conditions that the child is exposed to What distinguishes these emotions is that they are strong and exaggerated, and they quickly disappear and quickly disappear, such as shouting and crying loudly when their needs are not met, and his immediate silence when he gets what he wants. As for his most prominent emotions or responses to his surroundings, joy appears with him by smiling or laughing. Others talk to him or play with him, or when he succeeds
Standing or walking, as love appears to those around him, especially his parents, and the circle of his love widens to reach people who fulfill his desires, while fear appears when he is exposed to new stimuli or experiences, such as sudden sounds or strangers, and the child expresses his fear either by crying or screaming or withdrawing and resorting to his mother, His anger appears when he does not get what he wants, or when taking his toys from him, or the forced intervention of adults in his behavior such as forcing him to change his clothes, for example, while he does not want it, or his failure to try to get, get out or eat something, and this anger appears in the form of bouts of Crying or screaming and unguided movements, such as kicking, wa To wallow in the ground, and some aggressive resistance movements, and his jealousness of those around him may appear when someone tries to draw closer to his parents, or share his love with them, sometimes accompanied by screaming and shouting or resisting the intruder and making a noise, and it is assumed that when the child meets his physiological needs of hunger, sleep and cleanliness, he remains Quietly happy, of course, the child needs love, affection, attention, care and stability in treatment, and parents in this field must raise their children on love and establish positive relationships with others, and not to curb their emotions and suppress them, just as the child at this age does not perceive the punishment and the cause E must move away from it completely because of the fear generated by the generalized child.
Language is an acquired behavior that the child learns from among his family members, and then the circle of acquiring it expands as the surrounding environment becomes larger such as the family first, then the nursery, then kindergarten, and from there to school, where the child begins at this stage the transition from the stage of gestural expression to the stage of language expression, that is, from Formative language to practice and widening gradually as it progresses in age, the language for the child at its beginning is an attempt to imitate and simulate those around him by issuing sounds and random rhetoric, so the child begins to pronounce the cursive letters (A, A) and then the oral letters (M, B) and then brings them together to produce a word (Mama, Papa) to have b Then count the meanings, and link the symbolic word to its meaning The moral, the word (papa) means father, and this stage, meaning the first year of the child, is considered the one-word stage, where the child expresses one word about what he wants, then it is possible that he says (Papa) and he means that he wants to go out with him, or play with him, and other vocabulary that The child uses it to express himself and his needs,   It is necessary for parents to pay attention to the danger of neglecting speech defects that may appear in the child as problems of birth defects in the mouth or tongue, and its impact on the way the letters are formed and the soundness of their pronunciation, just as the mother must not Fulfilling what the child asks by simply referring to what he or she wants, but encouraging and encouraging him to make greater use of it It is not possible from the vocabulary, even if it is in his language that only the mother can understand.
The cognitive development of the child is distinguished at this stage by the kinesthetic development, that is, the senses are used to perform motor skills with the formation of sufficient mental images to use them to reach a specific goal of throwing things on the ground to witness the movement of their collision and recoil. The apparent reason for his crying is when his mother leaves the place where he is, and feels shy in the event of strangers, as his interaction with his games increases, it is possible to enter the game with a small size inside which you grow in size, and install the games on top of each other, and the parents in this The field of developing the cognitive skills of the child, then his games must be carefully chosen to meet cognitive goals that help in developing these skills, such as games consisting of a few pieces, putty, diced, and others, or bring similar games for real purposes such as the phone, or cooking utensils; because of this development The child’s imagination and urge him to talk.
Given that the family is the most important element of a child’s social development at this stage, his communication is primarily with the mother and father, then with other people in his surroundings, and it is noted at this stage that the child forms social relations with adults more than children of his age, and one of the most important factors Affecting the child’s social development is the general atmosphere of the family, as improper family conditions create a child that is mentally and socially unsafe, for example the separation of parents or the absence of one of them generates a child’s lack of feeling of safety, and the extra significance makes him a selfish child, creating the appropriate conditions for socialization A healthy awareness of the child creates from him a child who loves himself and is confident in himself, for the child is the mirror of his family, for example, the nervous mother creates her child in a tense environment that transmits fear and neurotic behavior, and the balanced mother creates a child who is balanced in his emotions and behavior towards himself and those around him.